Programming with markers

LEO first receives all information about the LEO markers it passes over. They contain QR codes that are decoded by the LEO Transporter. This information triggers an event in the LEO software.

These are commands or settings that are triggered with a single marker. Examples of this are the setting of the track color, warning tone on, and stop.

These are commands or settings that are triggered by two consecutive markers (10 cm distance between the markers). The condition, the basic command and then the action are always explained or the exact value is defined first. Examples are "Wait for time" + "2min": "When unloaded" + "Drive right"; "When battery is empty" + "Stop" ; "Station right" + "ID3" (station number 3 comes to the right of the switch)

These are commands or settings that are triggered by three consecutive markers (10 cm distance between the markers). They are always based on dual commands. Examples of this are: "If unloaded +"Wait for time" +" 2min" or "If destination" +"ID 3" + "Drive right"

These commands are the absolute exception and occur only with the "If target" marker. The example for this is: "If destination" + "ID 3" + "Wait for time" + "2 min".

What can I set with the markers?

Stop LEO or keep it waiting for a period of time

Alerts on or off

Setting of 0.4; 0.55; 0.7 m/s as Speed

Turn right, turn left

Turn right or left with/without container

Stop with/without container, wait for time

Check correct direction of travel

Specify a static target

The number of destinations is almost unlimited

If the battery is empty, turn right/left

When the battery is empty, beep on/off

Announcing and naming a station with and without bypass

Set up station once

Intelligent so-called Smart Station Announce

Set obstacle detection to greater distance and width

Ignore other markers for a distance of 1m (important when using a track for both ways)

Announcement of transfer stations

LEO must know that he is allowed to enter a station and enter it.

At the moment of crossing over the markers, LEO first asks whether it receives the sensor signal for release into the station. One station could be occupied.

In addition, LEO must slightly reduce the speed in the station and, above all, reduce obstacle detection. Otherwise he sees the support frames of the transfer station.

A station with a glued track through and another track around the station. This allows LEO to "bypass" the station if it is busy or does not correspond to its destination station.

LEO needs to know which side the station is on and what destination number it has. LEO must be able to bypass the station if it does not match its destination.

At the moment of the marker crossing, LEO must receive the release of the station for entry. it also switches to the station mode with reduced speed and obstacle detection.

No matter whether it is a double station, pick-up station or discharge station, the "Wait until station free" marker must always be affixed!

The delivery point is occupied

The container on the pick-up station stands crosswise

A container is still in the inlet of the pick-up Station

When using a target controller: LEO has no target for the container on the Station

Assign targets to LEO

I use markers to assign targets to tell LEO where to place a container when it is picked up.

Yes, but this requires LEO target control. This is only not possible with markers.

By gluing the marker combination: "Next target" + "ID XY". The combination should take place immediately when the container is picked up.

LEO accepts a target if it has picked up a container and has not had a target before. Destinations are not overwritten. Without a container, LEO will not accept a target.

As soon as the container has been removed/delivered!

LEO Decentral target control

It gives you the possibility to distribute LEO from one station to many target stations. Example is a warehouse and the goal are workstations.

Without them, only static targets and sequences can be executed.

After passing over a marker combination, the LEO Transporter establishes a radio connection to a LEO transfer station determined via the markers. By entering a destination with a tablet, the Smart Box and thus the LEO Transporter receives a destination.

No, communication with LEO is only via radio

No, the target can also be a place marked with markers.

An additional unit with antenna at the transfer station

An additional unit in the LEO Transporter with external antenna for a radio connection.

Each station has one. It is indicated by the red on/off button on the station. It combines the signals from the station sensors.

No. this is not possible.

Within a limited radius of 10-25m this is possible

Yes, the system can be retrofitted.

Yes, the system can be retrofitted.

There is no limit here

This is expressly foreseen

No, a tablet can only communicate with one Smart Box at a time

No, but this is possible one after the other.


This is possible via an installed interface on the Smart Box. However, BITO only provides the interface including software description of the interface. Integration must be carried out by the customer.

This is possible via an installed interface on the Smart Box. However, BITO only provides the interface including software description of the interface. Integration must be carried out by the customer.


LEO Transporter

The container load bearing capacity is 850mm. The yellow container carriers protrude 920mm high.

No. LEO only exists in one height.

The safety and continuous load-bearing capacity of the installed components such as motors and axles is designed for a payload of 20 kg.

LEO continues. Compliance with weight limits is the customer's responsibility.

0,7 m/s

0,4 m/s

2 % gradient / incline. Up to this gradient, LEO is not straightened on an inclined plane even if the electronics fails completely. In addition, LEO can roll uncontrollably and theoretically injure people.

5 - 6% gradients can be achieved by neglecting direct personal safety. For this purpose, the customer must ensure that no persons are permanently present in the area of this ramp.

LEO reliably detects obstacles and persons (99.9 %), but not person-safe, on straight stretches and in curves at a height of 70 mm. Right inside the curve, the sensor has a blind spot.

10 h continuous operation at max. 20 kg after 350 charging cycles. A new battery lasts longer.

Loading time is 6 h to completely full.

This is possible. This does not weaken the battery. A noticeable memory effect does not occur!

The battery change takes a maximum of 2 minutes!

No, LEO does not need maintenance!

15 kg

2 pieces in series connected 12 V lead-fleece battery (system voltage 24 V)

LEO Transfer Station

The LEO has a container support height of 850 mm. Accordingly, the container discharge is 840 mm and the container receptacle 860 mm.

No, the height cannot be changed.

When passing through a pick-up station, LEO picks up a container.

When passing through a drop-off station, LEO delivers the container.

A double station consists of a drop-off station and a pick-up station. LEO first delivers a container and picks up a new one.

Yes, it is supplied with 230 V mains voltage via a plug supplied.

This will be possible as standard from the 4th quarter of 2018 on. Older stations must be retrofitted for this purpose.

Yes, 1.2 m and 2.4 m buffer tracks are available as standard items for pick-up and drop off side.

A maximum dynamic pressure of 40kg is allowed on the container in the access. There is no overrun lock in the standard system.

Yes, this is possible in principle. However, a detailed agreement must be reached with the customer in each individual case.

LEO Cargo

(L x B x H) 600 x 400 x 420 mm

(L x B x H) 300 x 200 x 50 mm without operation with buffer tracks

(L x B x H) 400 x 200 x 50 mm with buffer operation

  • bins
  • Cardboard boxes in decent quality
  • trays
  • Steel shelves must be checked in detail as to whether the space occupied Sensor detects the shelves
  • Workpiece carriers with holes or frames only must be checked in each individual case.

LEO Track Tape

No, LEO only navigates by color!

Red, Blue, Green

Applications in low-dirt and pedestrian-only environments.

Applications in medium dirt and low forklift traffic?

Applications with a lot of dirt (very easy to wash off) and a lot of forklift traffic.

The track tape is very expensive with approx. 7 EUR/m.

Curves and turnouts are available as separate elements in the standard system.

It is only available in blue in the standard colour.

The track can be painted. It is to be painted matt and the track width of 20mm must not be exceeded.

On a straight line 100 mm can be bridged without any problems. At maximum speed up to 300 mm can be bridged.

In the curve this is very individual. 50 mm can be bridged without any problems. 100 mm is usually the same.


Only the damaged areas have to be glued over.

LEO Security & Safety Features

DIN 1525 - Automated guided vehicles and their systems

Yes! All essential safety points of the standard are observed. BGHW in Mannheim was also involved in the development of the transfer station.

No. It's only 99.9% safe. The overall system represents safety.

The force a LEO Transporter exerts on a stationary object or person at maximum load and speed is < 400 N

Yes, safety is ensured by avoiding pinch points.

The distance between the "tines" of the load receptor includes safety distances to prevent crushing of the hand.

The yellow protective corners at the LEO entrance guide the hands to the safety distance of the "tines" of the load pick-up.

LEO Marker

LEO Markers are command codes for the LEO Transporter. They are glued to the floor, next to the LEO track.

They contain so-called QR codes. The coded number is read and encoded when the LEO Transporter passes over the marker.

The information contained therein triggers an event in the LEO software. This can be: Slowing down.

The LEO codes are plastic-coated. They are therefore resistant to abrasion and damp floor cleaning.

Markers are provided with a very robust 3M adhesive layer. They correspond to the same quality as the ultra track tape and are therefore very resistant.

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